Patient Education & Awareness
Overview, Symptoms and Cure of Diseases
Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito. There are four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (DEN 1, DEN 2, DEN 3 and DEN 4). Symptoms appear in 3–14 days (average 4–7 days) after the infective bite. Dengue fever is a flu-like illness that affects infants, young children and adults.
Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes. It is an acute illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), and rash. The presence of fever, rash, and headache (the "dengue triad") is particularly characteristic of dengue. Other signs of dengue fever include bleeding gums, severe pain behind the eyes, and red palms and soles.
Dengue (pronounced DENG-gay) can affect anyone but tends to be more severe in people with compromised immune systems. Because it is caused by one of five serotypes of virus, it is possible to get dengue fever multiple times. However, an attack of dengue produces immunity for a lifetime to that particular viral serotype to which the patient was exposed.
Dengue goes by other names, including "breakbone" or "dandy fever." Victims of dengue often have contortions due to the intense joint and muscle pain, hence the name breakbone fever. Slaves in the West Indies who contracted dengue were said to have dandy fever because of their postures and gait.
If you or any family member is suffering from suspected dengue fever, it is important to carefully watch yourself or relative for the next few days, since this disease can rapidly become very serious and lead to a medical emergency.
The complications associated with Dengue Fever/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever usually appear between the third and fifth day of illness. You should therefore watch the patient for two days even after fever disappears.
WHAT TO DO:
• Keep body temperature below 39oC.
• Give large amounts of fluids (water, soup, milk, juice) along with the patient’s normal diet.
• The patient should take complete rest.
• Immediately consult a doctor if any of the following manifestations appear:
o Red spots or points on the skin;
o Bleeding from the nose or gums;
o Frequent vomiting;
o Vomiting with blood;
o Black stools;
o Constant crying;
o Abdominal pain;
o Excessive thirst (dry mouth);
o Pale, cold or clammy skin;
o Difficulty in breathing.
WHAT NOT TO DO:
• Do not wait in case the above symptoms appear. Immediately consult a doctor. It is crucial to quickly get treatment in case of these complications.
• Do not take Aspirin or Brufen or Ibubrufen.
There are several stages of HIV disease. The first HIV symptoms may include swollen glands in the throat, armpit, or groin. Other early HIV symptoms include slight fever, headaches, fatigue, and muscle aches. These symptoms may last for only a few weeks. Then there are usually no HIV symptoms for many years.
If you have HIV/AIDS, you can take combinations of medicines called "cocktails." The drug cocktails are designed to strengthen the immune system to keep HIV from developing into AIDS or to relieve AIDS symptoms. These drugs are often very expensive, may have serious and very uncomfortable side effects, and may not be available to everyone. They only work for some people and may only work for limited periods of time
HOW HIV spread
· having vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom with someone who has HIV/AIDS
· sharing needles or syringes with someone who has HIV/AIDS
· being deeply punctured with a needle or surgical instrument contaminated with HIV
· getting HIV-infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions into open wounds or sores
Babies born to women with HIV/AIDS can get HIV from their mothers during birth or from breastfeeding.
HIV CANNOT be spread by:
Hiv / Aids Dos:-
• Sympathise and empathise with them
• Provide them family and social support
• Allow them to be a part of the family as he / she was prior todisclosure of the infection
• Allow them to get back to their work as soon as soon as he / she isphysically fit, since HIV infection doesn’t require special rest
• Keep them engaged in some activity, as an empty mind is a devil’sworkshop
• Make efforts to reduce their stress
• Encourage them to exercise and meditate as these help prolong the lifespan
• Provide them with a high protein, high vitamin diet and clean potablewater (boiled)
• Convince them to stop all addictions such as tobacco cigarettes, alcoholor other psychotropic / recreational drugs
• Register them with a health care facility for regular checks and follow up
• Take immediate steps to treat even minor ailments. However, it is notnecessary to disclose their HIV status to their family physician
• Dispose off blood stained tampons and bandages properly, either byflushing or by disinfecting them first with detergent
Hiv / Aids Donts :-
· Don’t accuse them for getting infected, it doesn’t help
· Don’t try to probe into when, where the person was infected
· Don’t make them feel guilty
· Don’t isolate them in their home / workplace
· Don’t separate them from spouse or children, since they are the best support for them. It is important for them to spend quality family time together
· Don’t use gloves in feeding the infected person or to wipe off his saliva, sweat, nasal secretions and tears
· Don’t share razors, tooth brush and other sharp objects with infectedperson or for that matter with any body else
· It is not necessary to wash their clothes separately
· Don’t disclose the HIV status of infected person to friends, employerand insurance company
· Don’t humiliate the infected person, his / her spouse or children
· Don’t scare them of suffering and death. In the terminal stage,prepare them for a smooth journey to death
· Don’t get conned by the fake claims, false cures, witch hunters andfaith healers. Wait for declaration of the noble prize for the real cure
Swine Influenza (swine flu) or H1N1 is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by Type A influenza viruses that causes regular outbreaks in pigs. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from person-to-person, but in the past, this transmission was limited and not sustained beyond three people.
· Sometimes people may become infected by touching something with live flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose.
Signs of influenza A (H1N1) are flu-like, including fever, cough, headache, muscle and joint pain, sore throat and runny nose, and sometimes vomiting or diarrhoea. Like seasonal flu, swine flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic medical conditions.
Medicine for Swin flu- oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza)